Since the German Dr. Carl Salomon first proposed the concept of high-speed cutting in the 1930s, after the mechanism and feasibility studies in the 1950s, the process technology research in the 1970s, the comprehensive and systematic high-speed cutting technology research in the 1980s, and the early 1990s, high-speed cutting The technology began to be put into practical use. By the late 1990s, a large number of commercial high-speed cutting machine tools emerged. At the beginning of the 21st century, high-speed cutting technology was widely used in industrialized countries and is becoming the mainstream technology of cutting.
In 1976, Vought Company in the United States developed an ultra-high-speed milling machine with a maximum speed of 20,000rpm. What is particularly striking is that the Production Engineering and Machine Tool Research (PTW) of Darmstadt University of Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany has systematically carried out research on the mechanism of ultra-high-speed cutting since 1978, and conducted high-speed cutting tests on various metal and non-metallic materials. Dozens of companies have provided more than 20 million marks to support the research.
Since the mid-to-late 1980s, commercialized ultra-high-speed cutting machine tools have continued to emerge, and ultra-high-speed machine tools have developed from a single ultra-high-speed milling machine to ultra-high-speed turning and milling machines, drilling and milling machines and even various high-speed machining centers.
Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Japan have also successively launched their own ultra-high-speed machine tools. The maximum spindle speed of the HG400III machining center of Japan's Hitachi Seiki is 36000~40000r/min, and the rapid movement speed of the worktable is 36~40m/min. The feed movement speed of the HVM800 high-speed machining center of Ingersoll Company in the United States using the linear motor is 60m/min.
In ultra-high-speed machining technology, superhard material tools are the premise and prerequisite for realizing ultra-high-speed machining. Ultra-high-speed cutting and grinding technology is the technological method of modern ultra-high-speed ultra-high-speed machining tool processing, while high-speed CNC machine tools and machining centers are The key equipment for realizing ultra-high-speed machining.
At present, tool materials have been developed from carbon steel and alloy tool steel, through high-speed steel, hard alloy steel, and ceramic materials to synthetic diamond and polycrystalline diamond (PCD), cubic boron nitride and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride ( CBN). The cutting speed has also increased from the previous 12m/min to more than 1200m/min with the innovation of tool materials. In the past, the grinding wheel materials mainly used corundum series and silicon carbide series.
American G. Company E first succeeded in diamond synthesis in the 1950s, and successfully developed CBN in the 1960s. In the 1990s, the linear speed of ceramic or resin-bonded CBN grinding wheels and diamond grinding wheels could reach 125m/s, and some could reach 150m/s, while single-layer electroplating CBN grinding wheels could reach 250m/s.
In terms of high-speed and ultra-high-speed grinding technology, many high-speed and ultra-high-speed grinding, deep-cut slow-feed grinding, deep-cut fast-feed grinding (ie HEDG), multi-piece grinding wheel and multi-wheel frame grinding have been developed. High-efficiency grinding, these high-speed and high-efficiency grinding technologies have been greatly developed and applied in the past 20 years.
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